The Best Places to Play Online Poker

With the onset of the technology age came online casino gambling. Choosing a casino to do your online gambling can be difficult as the Internet is full of them. The types of software each casino uses as well as if they will even allow US players to play in their casino varies from casino to casino. One of them is 에볼루션 카지노 too. A list of the top five online casinos to play online poker is provided as follows.

Absolute Poker

The games offered include; Seven Card Stud, Omaha Hi/Lo, and Texas Hold’em.

Pros: Absolute Poker uses software which is easy to use and has the features including allowing you to play three tables at once, chat, player search, player notes, and hand histories. It also has a lot of extra bells and whistles that really aren’t necessary, but add considerably to the fun.


The games offered include; Seven Card Stud, Omaha Hi/Lo, Omaha Hi, and Texas Hold’em.

Pros: Bodog uses software is easy to use and includes features such allowing you play multiple tables at once, chat, player search, and player notes. It also allows the player to choose a player icon to personalize your experience.

Cons: The software is Windows based. Players have been known to get kicked off and not be able to get logged back in. In the process they lose the game and their money.

Full Tilt

The games offered include; Razz, Seven Card Stud, Omaha Hi/Lo, Omaha Hi, and Texas Hold’em.

Pros: Full Tilt makes playing poker like a fun video game, and lets the player choose all sorts of crazy avatars to represent them the table. This includes everything from monkeys to a sexy nurse. The player can also change the expression of your avatar from confused to happy to normal and customize the background as well. The software includes standard features such as allowing payers to play at multiple tables at once, chat, and player notes. It is available for Mac & Windows users.

Cons: Some levels and types of games don’t get a lot of players, so if the player doesn’t play Hold’em, you might not find a game. The seemingly great sign up bonus they offer seems is pretty hard to clear and cash out.


The games offered include; Seven Card Stud, Omaha Hi/Lo, Omaha Hi, and Texas Hold’em.

Pros: Interpoker’s most unique feature is that you can play for pounds or Euros as well as dollars. The software displays the conversion rate to the player as they are sitting down. It also has all the standard features such as allowing the player to play multiple tables at once, chat, and player notes. After the player plays for a while, they might be asked to act as a Prop Player at a table, which will allow the player to earn back the rake as you play. Finally, they also have a great bonus offer where the player can get $90 every month if they deposit $100.

Cons: The software is Windows based. There are no avatars or backgrounds for embellishment. In order to cash out, the player must wait to receive a code in the mail from ECash, which can take as long as a few weeks to receive after your initial deposit. Also this site does not allow US players.

Noble Poker

The Games offered include; Omaha Hi/Lo, Omaha Hi, and Texas Hold’em.

Pros: Noble has really great software and better online customer support. The software includes features such as allowing a player to play at multiple tables at one time, table chat, player search, and player notes. They are also very understanding about letting the player set up private tables and games. They also have one of the best signup bonuses available, and it’s relatively easy to cash out

Cons: The software is Windows based. It is a small site, so there are times when it’s difficult to find a game to play. There’s also no way for the player to check how much he/she has earned towards getting the signup or other bonuses, so the player may have to discuss this with online support every time they want to determine where they stand. Also, US players are not allowed.


Poker being just a game has a lot of ways and combinations to play. As other games have, every game is just a game but there are different ways to play it, with different number of people and different combinations and techniques. One could play in different ways according to situation and requirement.

How to find the cheapest Facebook Poker Chips

Many people are on the lookout to buy cheap facebook poker chips. Finding a site that sells cheap Facebook poker chips is asas using a search engine and typing in “cheap facebook poker chips”. There are many sites selling Facebook chips and thanks to the internet you can quickly compare the deals on offer from the most obvious perspective of cost, to various payments methods, exchange rates and customer service. Many of these websites have been established for a long time and run a professional business with live support. The finding of the cheapest เครดิตฟรี กดรับ เอง is essential for the gamblers to have the benefits. The playing of the games is with the skills and intelligence of the online bettors. A look at the various payment methods to have the desired results is essential for the players. 

Of course many people are still worried about purchasing cheap Facebook poker chips through these websites perhaps due to the possibility of being scammed. This is a very important issue and it is always a good idea to research the site you wish to purchase from to minimize the chance of it being a scam.Whilst you could just buy Facebook poker chips through the poker software and hence directly from Zynga it is often several times more expensive and so it is certainly worth shopping around to get a good deal.

Here are some things to look for to find a reputable seller of cheap Facebook poker chips:

  1. A Professional & Informative Website:Is the website professional looking? If the website is only 1 page and looks like it was made in an hour or two it is highly likely that the website owner doesn’t intend for it to last very long. On the other hand if the website looks nice and has pages and pages of information it is very likely that this person is going to be around for a while and so has put in a lot of time and energy into his website.
  2. Secure & Encrypted Payment Processing:The chip seller should offer a number of reputable payment processors so that you can pay for the chips. Using reputable and well know payment processors is vital in ensuring your data is kept secure and encrypted so that your financial details are stolen and used fraudulently. You should also make sure the transaction is taking place over a secure server.
  3. Live Support:Live support is an additional bonus to make sure everything goes through smoothly and within a short period. By being able to talk with the chip seller in real time can certainly speed up the process and cut out any confusion.
  4. Fast Delivery:Since we are only purchasing virtual chips and nothing that physically exists you should expect extremely fast delivery times at least within 24 hours. After all, all it takes are a few mouse button clicks for you to receive your cheap Facebook poker chips.

  1. Competitive Pricing:There are many websites now selling cheap Facebook poker chips and so you should shop around to find out what a good price is. However you should be wary of sites that sell them too cheap, if it’s too good to be true then usually it is.

Hyperledger Blockchain Project To Elect New Tech Committee

The project is preparing to elect a new technical steering committee (TSC) as well as a new chairperson for that committee, according to its open-source documentation. The move comes less than a year after the Hyperledger project publicly launched in December of 2015 as a way to create a “business blockchain” that would be used by enterprises.

The understanding of the pros and cons of the Bitcoin Dice is essential to play bitcoin games. The registration at the right casino is essential for the traders to have more benefits. You can know everything about the platform to have the best results. 

The nomination process for the committee began yesterday, and runs through 18th August. Voting among the project’s active contributor base – those participating in the development of the Hyperledger codebase – begins that day, and runs through 24th August.

To facilitate the vote, the project is turning to a platform called the Condorcet Internet Voting Service (CIVS). Developed by Cornell, it allows participating voters to create a slate of their preferred candidates.

The results will be announced on the 25th.

Once the committee is selected, those new members will vote between themselves on the a new chairperson, Hyperledger executive director Brian Behlendorf said.

The committee membership is currently composed of some of the project’s biggest backers, including IBM, DTCC, Intel and JPMorgan. The TSC is currently chaired by Christopher Ferris of IBM.

According to Behlendorf, the hope is to staff the TSCÂ with those who contribute the most to the initiative.

He told CoinDesk

“We bootstrapped the TSC with kind of the initial premier members of the organization, but we didn’t want that to hard-code in. We really wanted to instill, across the project, a ‘do-ocracy’, which is a term we brought over from Apache.”

Since launch, the Hyperledger Project has explored a range of blockchain use cases, with a number of notable companies involved submitting proposals for their own approach to the technology.

Different Types Of Poker Games And How To Play Them

Well, I am quite amazed to find that there lots of people who do not know how to play the game of poker. I learned it when I was in college by playing on MEGA888 ORIGINAL, and they say, I am quite good at it! So, since I have some command on this subject, I thought about giving you some ideas on how to play this incredible card game and make some money; you might also end up losing.

I am sure it sounds exciting, so, let’s begi

What do you need? There are some common items that would require playing all types of poker. They are:

Few card decks: It goes without saying that in a card game you will need cards. But how many? Well, that depends on how many people you are playing with

No of players: It depends on the purpose. If you are playing for money, then you will need at least 3 more individuals. If you are just playing for fun, then only one would suffice. However, the more players you have fun it would be.

Card table: This is not a must to have item. It is more optional. However, a card table always makes a game of card more enjoyable.

Money: If you wish to bet, then the money is required.

Learn the language of the game There are different terms that are used in a game of poker. It is very important to get used to them. In order to know about different types of poker and how to play each, it is very important to learn about certain terms which are commonly used in the game of poker. Here are some of them

Ante: It is the very first and a negligible sum of money that is introduced to the game. It has to be put up by all the players if they are willing to play with money.

Fold: Getting rid of your cards. You are free to do this at any point in time

Call: You may “call” to place the same amount as a bet which has been put up by another player

Raise: If you think you have a very good hand then you can increase the amount of bet which has been put up by the other players.

Capped Betting: It refers to a situation when you can no longer bet. It occurs following four raises.

Bluff: This is a situation when a player keeps on betting high amount despite of not having a good hand. He does this to fool others.

Is it all? Certainly not! There are lots of things that you need to learn and know before you can start playing the game. The game of poker is very interesting and you might get addicted to it. The best way to learn about the calls and the ticks is by watching others play. That is the best way to learn.

Types of poker

There is numerous variety of Poker game which is being played. Some of the most common types are:

Texas hold em Omaha 7 Card Stud 5 Card Draw Community card poker

The game of Poker has though lost some of its popularity; however, it still remains to be the major attraction in Casinos all over the world.

How to play different types of poker games As mentioned, there are different kinds of poker games that exist and each of them has a different way of playing. Here is a brief insight on different types of poker and how to play each.

Texas Hold’em: This is perhaps the most popular of all the different kinds of poker games that are being played. In this format, hole cards are dealt with each of the players. The idea is to make the best five-card Play moves in the clockwise direction. The action begins with the player who is sitting to the left of the dealer. Usually, the two players sitting on the left side of the button posts a blind which is a small number, and then a large blind to start the process of betting. From this phase onwards, the action follows numerous streets, which are the flop, the river, the turn, and preflop.

Omaha: A 5 cards Omaha is a variant kind of Omaha where all the players have 5 cards, to begin with instead of 4. Five participants are required to play this game. To begin with, 5 cards are placed at the center of the table by the dealer. The players take the cards one by one.

7 Card Stud: This type of Poker game is being played where the starting hand of 2 downcards and 1 upcard are being given to each player. It is done before the first round of betting. There are 3 additional upcards and one remaining downcard. The pot is won by the best 5 card poker hand.

5 Card Draw: This is a very simple format of poker. After the first draw, the idea is to make the best 5 card poker hand. After the 2nd betting round, the player with the best hand is allowed to take the pot. The game of 5 Card Draw can be played in 2 different ways. 1 Ante 1 Blind

Community Card Poker: Community card poker is a very simple game. Here one does not need to be an expert on the game; all he needs to know is the type of cards and how to bet. After the deal, the first blind is called, and then the one with the highest call gets the chance to throw the second deal.

Online Bingo Games The Ultimate Online Resource

Have you ever played bingo at a live tournament and found yourself at a loss on how to actually play? Yes, I know that the game itself is actually extremely easy to learn and, without a shadow of a doubt, anyone who decides that they would want to pick it up as a hobby might pick up on the rules of the game fairly quickly. But what if it was possible for you to make this favorite pastime a way of making a second income each month? Do I have your attention now?

The only way that you can ensure that your bingo playing habit becomes a viable source of income each month is if you play online. If you only play bingo at your local parlor, then you are placing your monthly income goals into the hands to chance, and, let us just face it… relying on luck is no way to make your monthly expenses! What if I were to tell you that when your play online bingo games, you actually increase your chances of bringing home a sizable amount of money matching one or more of your monthly bills? Even though this might sound too good to be true, there are certain benefits that playing online bingo games can only offer you!

For example, did you know that if you sign up for the right online bingo games site, you will be automatically gifted anywhere from 30 dollars to 50 dollars just for signing up? This is a deal that no other bingo playing parlor will ever offer you, and, since it is free money that you can use on whatever you see fit, you are able to start your bingo playing career on somebody else’s cash, making this endeavor absolutely free for you! What an amazing deal! Being able to make money on something that you have never needed to fund yourself…. What a revolutionary concept!

This can only be offered while playing online bingo games, however! The reason behind this is largely due to the limited amount of overhead that operating an online bingo games site has. Instead of paying multiple employees and continue offering the general public all of the games on mega888 that they have come to love all day long, they pay one to two website designers to make sure that their sites are operating in their full parameters. Sounds simple, right? Well, it is! And since these online companies are already saving a ton of money through their lack of overhead costs, they are able to offer you signup bonuses that cannot be found anywhere else in the world.

Still not convinced? Why not visit one of these amazing websites? You will find that the one site that we are more than willing to recommend not only offers new players a 59 dollar signup bonus, but they also offer an ebook filled with information about the game itself, and useful strategies that can be used on their site in order to increase your earnings. This is a sure win for anyone who wishes to make money while having fun, so hurry and visit our recommended website if these facts have interested you!

As the English language is extensively used in the majority of online gambling venues, betting is widely done all over the world, with the majority in the USA and England. English as it is universally accepted and spoken throughout the globe, English makes a betting site available to players from various countries.

Online Casino Game Cheats

With a bang of interest in the world for online casinos as เกมป๊อกเด้งออนไลน์ ได้เงินจริง is launched globally, there has also been unwanted extra interest from scammers out to cheat their way to a fortune. But believe it or not, cheaters are everywhere! There might be in the collaborative world business, at sporting matches, exam rooms, arcade games, or even love life, cheaters are all over the place.

Cheating can be as simple as stealing chips, stealing blinds, and stealing your mind. It can also be as highly-developed as using technology to predict where a roulette ball will come to rest.

Reality bites, there is nothing to prevent a bunch of crooks from creating a fake online casino to steal your identity, credit card information or to simply create an online casino where players always lose.

At the same time, there are many online casinos that are legitimate businesses and will never bring into play any cheating tactics to steal your money or important information. Everyone knows that the casino business and even gambling, in general, is a bullet-proof system, the house always wins in the long run.

On the surface, cheating appears to be the wrong thing to do. It’s dishonest. And you are not only cheating your opponents but also yourself because you are not playing the game by the rules. Cheating attempts can happen as frequently as once a week, and whenever there is money involved, people will find a way to cheat.

By playing a dirty hand may be behind it all but a person cannot carry away the fact that the opportunity of actually having a touch of luck in succeeding the whole thing is also an opportunity as well.

Regardless of the online casino’s Randon Number Generator RNG, including online slots are pre-programmed to ensure fair play and make certain that the rate at which each online casino game pays out is according to the online casino’s operators’ percentages.

But unfortunately, since cheating is around the corner, there have been excluded instances whereby certain online gambling sites have attempted to get away with controlling their RNGs so that they pay less than the casinos’ published rates.

Though it is not considered as an online casino cheating, spite of countless other acts of deception are also conducted by some online casino operators. These particular companies tend to either stretch out the time it takes for a customer to actually see their money when having a shot to complete the withdrawal process, or obstruct any and all attempts to fetch back their money altogether.

These rogue online casino operators take part in this sort of racketeering conspiracy knowing that the more online casino players gamble, the greater their chances of losing their total account balances to the casino.

All casino games, online and at the local casino, are games of chance. However, many casino players find themselves desperately wanting the sure and winning bet. This, in turn, could result in many gamblers attempting to cheat the casino to gain that sure win.

My Commerce Casino Trip

My roommate and I loaded up in the truck and made the 45 minute drive to the Staple center to see the Clippers take on Lebron and Company. After Elton Brand/Corey Maggette laid the smack down on the Cavaliers, we decided it’d be fun to stop at Commerce with a couple hundred bucks and play a little no limit hold em. After about a 15 minute wait, I get sat down at a table with a bunch of talkers but no real talent. My seat is directly to the right of the dealer, and besides the 2 guys who seemed to be playing a tight/aggressive game, just about all 7 others were trying to limp into every pot, and called 15 dollar raises with any two cards. I take down a few pots with top pair, but other than that my pairs are missing and so are most of the cards I get dealt.

About an hour into my session I’m sitting with about $85 in front of me, and look down on the big blind to see Ah-Qh. All eight players have limped to me, and I decide to make it $20. 4 people call to my surprise before it gets back to this Mexican dude who had just sat down. He sat down and started running his mouth instantly with “tilt-like” references. It seemed as if he had watched his first episode of EPSN WSOP 2005 today and wanted to give poker a go. He goes all in for his last $60. (It was $42 for me to call if I remember right.) Theres roughly about $150 in the pot, and I figure I’m at the worse in a race with this guy. My roommate had busted on a couple bad beats at the table next to me and was ready to go, so I felt pushing my last $60 in is the right move as it should isolate me against this guy. 2 of the 4 people call my all-in, and now the pot is at around $300. The two guys who had me covered agreed to check it down and the board came: Ac-2h-8c turn: 8s river: Qd The two guys who agreed to check down showed Q-K and 10-J (?!?!?!?) and the Mexican dude mucked his cards. I scooped up the $300 and told my roommate I’d play one more round before we got out of here.

The Mexican dude comes back to the table about 3 hands later with another $100 and buys back in. 3 limpers (including the Mexican dude) come into the pot when it gets to me and I find Ad-Kd in my pocket. I make the table standard raise to $15. The blinds both fold, and so does the 1st position limper. This solid Russian player makes the call, and the Mexican dude decides to make it $30. (Tilt??) I debate pushing right here, but decide to cold call and so does the Russian. Before the dealer could put down the Flop, the Mexican gangster dude declares he’s all-in in the dark (out of position). The Russian dude laughs and checks in the dark, while the Mexican dude sat there, arms crossed doing his best to to act like he has a big one. The flop comes down As-Ks-4(x). I cold call the all-in bet, and the Russian thinks it over and folds. The Mexican dude flips over Qs-Js, and starts yelling 10 or spade baby! Unfortunently for him, the turn and river were blanks and I picked up another nice pot. Here’s where things get a little weird. I just decided to play agen judi bola to gain more experience and have fun at the same time.

This Mexican guy is in a full San Diego Chargers get-up and quite frankly looks like one scary dude. (Your typical big southern California Mexican gangster)

The following dialogue was exchanged after I busted him a second time: (I’ll let you guess who is who)

“You better fuckin have security walk you out to the car motherfucker”

“Hey dude, sorry, but it’s just a game”

“Nah, don’t fuckin’ apologize to me motherfucker. You better sit at this table all fuckin night cause I’ll get you motherfucker”

“Relax man, lets just keep playing. I suck, and I’m sure I’ll give most of this back.”

“Look at you. I bet $200 doesn’t even mean shit to you. “

(At this point the table realizes there is some conflict and all look to see how I react)

“Dude, $200 means just as much to me as it does to you. Lets just drop this”

“Nah, fuck you. I’m not afraid to go back to fucking jail.”

When I heard him say “BACK TO JAIL” I realized I needed to get out of there before I got stabbed with an ice pick or something at the table. I tell the dealer I need to get a chip rack, gather my chips, apologize to the table for leaving so soon after winning big pots and went to the Cashier. I cashed out $484 from a $100 buy-in, and told the cashier what happened at my table. She said if he got up from the table Security would step in and get the guy. Not exactly what I was looking for but I quickly put the money in my pocket, grabbed my roommate and headed out of there as fast as I could. I looked over my shoulder every few steps, but never saw the guy.

Since Checkraise motivated me to start getting back into Poker I’ve been doing pretty well for myself. I deposited $200 on December 1st, and am attempting to run up a decent roll playing out of my bankroll initially with $15 turbo SNG’s and some 2/4 limit if I find myself a very donkified game. After Sunday was over my new roll online is $650, and I won $350 at commerce on Saturday.

All You Need To Know About The Turn In Limit Holdem

The current lesson will be directed at improving your strategies for committing the turn. Just in case you have reached the turn decision, but have not still folded the pre-flop, the bets might end up doubling so that there might be very little time left for you to go very far from a marginal hand. Before going to the remaining part of this story just keep in mind that my approach towards handling Hold’em might just be totally tight and also an accurate assessment of the facts. So finally let us take a look into what many people say is the toughest part of poker as they play online on agen poker.

Best hand

There is a chance that you may either know that you are in possession of the best hand as you are holding the current nuts or you might just believe that you are having the best hand because of the fact that you have all the aces in your hand. For example, the situation at hand might be that the board on which you are playing is not well co-ordinated or that it might not have helped anybody else in the past. If it is the case that you are holding all the nuts in a given position, then you should also be holding the bets.

Playing it in a totally straightforward way is the way in which solid limit players approach the game. Other than doing it with a few exceptions like holding off the quads, you should keep in mind that you do not fall prey to what is known as the Fancy Play Syndrome. However, if it so happens that you may be having a very complex decision that has to be made, then you need to hold your positions very tightly in your hand. The best part of the whole process is that in case a free card ends up beating you, a particular player may have decided to fold for your bet. Just in case if you are holding the best hand, but are unsure about what exactly needs to be done, just take a small bet.

A draw

As was made clear, winning limit hold’em mostly depends upon the math. Just in case, you imagine that you are in a draw and know all the points of outs and odds which might include all the implied odds to decide whether it is correct and go ahead. Buying a hand and continuing without possessing the correct price is like a mistake that only the weak players make. Always keep in mind that there is absolutely no shame in folding and quitting in the middle.

The game need not go in favor of people who have the highest number of pots won by the conclusion of the session, but basing on the number of chips that are already amassed by the players. At the time of counting off your outs, just ensure that you focus on the cleanouts versus the outs that are retained. Clean-outs will not benefit anyone else. Just for an example consider a situation where you would be drawing one single open-ended straight with just the card that is to come and that too from the same suit that is placed on the board. In the current limit plays it may not be against the rules for players to take one card off and say it as a single bet.

Contender with outs

They are the hands that are ready to be played, but you are not sure where you are standing and fear that you are just the second best. A good example of such a situation is holding pocket jacks at a time when an over-card might end up flopping. It is in such situations that most of the issues like that of the position, number of active players, knowledge about your opponents in the game, and understanding about your own game might help you.

There is a good adage in the field of poker which states that ‘there is no sniper standing behind every single tree’. By keeping such an expression in mind at the time when other issues might hit your play, just remember to use that card to counter your opponents effectively. Keep in mind that if the card looks totally scary for you, it will be equally bad for the opponents sitting opposite you.


A big doubt that might be lingering in your mind might be about how a solid player is achieving big success with nothing but a big junk in his hands. That situation might happen when having a position and seen by one big opponent, you end up bluffing at the place of the pot and also receive a major call. Always keep in mind that many of your opponents might go ahead and play a single card over the game, but when the bet gets doubled they get very hesitant to go on unless it is the case that the turn ends up improving their hand.

The turn in the fixed limit can certainly be a momentous time as the stakes at hand keep on growing so that the errors that are committed get magnified. Solid and well-experienced players know this fact and utilize it to their own benefit. It’s time you follow suit.

Play All American Poker Games Such As Double Bonus Poker Games

Do you like playing poker? This is a game that can bring about plenty of enjoyment to those who play for both fun and money. You can play all American poker games such as double bonus poker games by going online and downloading free software to play the games. This does not cost you any money and you can play confidently, without worrying about losing any of your money when you are playing.

Not everyone plays poker for money. This can be a game of enjoyment with or without the money. In fact, it can be more stressful to play using your money, especially if you are not sure about the games that you are playing so make sure to know the game that you are familiar with like allbet. If you think that poker is just a game of chance, think again. poker is a lot more than that. It is a game of skill that requires the player knowing the odds and what moves to make in order to win. This does not guarantee a win every time, but it does increase the odds for the player to win. Knowing what you are doing when you are playing all American poker games is imperative if you plan on playing for money.

Double bonus poker games are also big money makers in the casino world. But again, if you rely on luck alone, you will end up losing big money instead of gaining it. If you want to have a chance to win money when playing these games, the trick is to practice.

If you like playing poker and want to get skilled at the game, you have two choices. You can download free poker games for fun and play at home, or you can go to a casino and play for money, in which case you can lose your money rather quickly. It makes better sense to play for fun until you know enough of how the games work to play for money. All American poker games are the ideal way to play for fun and hone in skills that are needed in order to be a good poker player.

There are books on how to play poker that are filled with strategies on how to win. But nothing beats experience at the game. You can learn better to win at double bonus poker games by playing than you can by reading books on the subject. As the amount of poker tournaments across the country starts to grow, you will find that you have a chance of winning these games if you learn how to play when you play for fun online.

When you download free all American poker games, you do not play for money, although you will get fake money in your bank. This allows you to judge how well you are doing at the game. If you start to accumulate big winnings all of the time, then it may be time to test out your skills in a real poker game. Like any other type of skill, poker skills can be learned if you are willing to practice and put your strategies into play.

The Mro Ma Market Is Like A Game Of Poker

In many ways, MRO mergers and acquisitions constitute their own form of industry-predictive maintenance and how it affects the health of the sector. An intelligent deal involves gathering data and looking at what might happen, not only for MRO providers but for aviation as a whole. In the words of former Apple CEO John Sculley: “The best way to predict the future is to invent it.”

Sometimes predicting the future involves taking a step back. “If you’re thinking about what’s been impacting the aftermarket, it’s not mergers and acquisitions [M&A] in MRO, it’s mergers and acquisitions in the broader aerospace sense,” says David Stewart, a partner at consultancy Oliver Wyman.

Visualize a pie chart of the component-MRO spending for the Boeing 777 by supplier. “It’s massively fragmented,” says Stewart. “There are lots and lots of different OEMs providing parts for the 777.”

Creative Commons

“You can be a very big shark in your marketplace, but it’s the piranhas which will take you apart,” says British Telecom Chairman Iain Vallance.

Put that chart to one side. Now create one for the Boeing 787. Significant supply-chain consolidation—such as Hamilton Sundstrand, Goodrich, Rockwell Collins and B/E Aerospace all coming together as Collins Aerospace—means just a few companies are involved in 70-80% of the MRO spending for 787 components.

“Suddenly, those component OEMs, because they’ve consolidated at OEM-level, can come up with a compelling offer. They own a significant proportion of the aftermarket for the 787 in terms of their access to the parts,” Stewart explains.

While this is “absolutely right” for their businesses, he says, this limits component-MRO options on some of the newer airframes: “There’s tons of choice on the huge fleets, on the Airbus A320 and the [Boeing] 737, because that supply chain has been around forever. It’s more a new-aircraft platform problem.”

Struggle For Independents

Together with other major deals, such as Safran and Zodiac Aerospace, this consolidation makes it harder for independent MROs to compete. As show business performer Dean Martin once said: “When your opponent’s sitting there holding all the aces, there’s only one thing left to do: Kick over the table.” In MRO, the table is a metaphor for the old way of doing business.

As part of that shift, independent MROs are joining forces with OEMs. “You’re clearly seeing, on the engine side and on the component side, more OEM alignment,” says Ken Herbert, aviation analyst at Canaccord Genuity. “There’s always going to be a market and demand for independent MROs. Clearly, that’s being pressured these days by OEM involvement on a number of levels, but independent MROs are not going to be extinct anytime soon.”

Why Acquire?

In the aftermarket, companies such as StandardAero and Magnetic MRO, to name just a couple, have changed hands in recent months. Herbert sees at least three high-level drivers behind this consolidation: OEM involvement, geographic expansion to tap growing demand and access to intellectual property—particularly around data and new technologies. “I think these are three of the key reasons we’ve seen a lot of M&A activity within MRO so far, and I expect that to continue,” he notes.

  • Oliver Wyman
  • David Stewart, partner at Oliver Wyman

Like Stewart, Herbert sees United Technologies’ acquisition of Rockwell Collins as “incredibly significant on a lot of levels.” He also flagged TransDigm’s $3.6 billion acquisition of Esterline as “transformational” for that part of the industry.

Herbert’s comment is significant, because not all areas of MRO are at the same stage of consolidation.

“Engine MRO consolidated a long time ago, because the engine OEMs needed capacity, so they ended up buying a lot of the independent MROs. Now you’ve reached a stage where the engine OEMs, through their facilities or partners, probably on average have a 50-60% market share,” Stewart points out.

Component consolidation is happening at the OEM level, but Stewart says the component-MRO sector remains massively fragmented. Historically, Lufthansa Technik and Air France Industries KLM Engineering and Maintenance (AFI KLM E&M) have been acquirers in this space. “You’ve literally got thousands of ‘mom and pop shops’ out there. You will see more consolidation there,” he says.

Airline Backlash

Stewart believes there is still plenty of component-MRO choice, but that sector needs to be careful about repeating what happened in engine MRO, especially on newer aircraft.

He cites the International Air Transport Association’s recent competition complaint against CFM International’s MRO policies as a warning bell. “They [the component MROs] are not anywhere near that yet, but one has to be conscious of making sure the airlines believe they still have choice. If you think… For more amazing games, visit situs judi bola terpercaya.